Orthodontic main topics.
Growth and development
Björk A. Facial growth in man; x-ray studies with implanted metal indicators]. Tandlaegebladet. 1955 Feb;59(2):55-66
Bjork A, palling M. Adolescent age changes in sagittal jaw relation, alveolar prognathy, and incisal inclination. Acta Odontol Scand. 1955 Feb;12(3-4):201-32.
Björk A. Prediction of mandibular growth rotation. Am J Orthod. 1969 Jun;55(6):585-99.
Björk A, Skieller V. Facial development and tooth eruption. An implant study at the age of puberty. Am J Orthod. 1972 Oct;62(4):339-83.
Björk A, Skieller V. Growth of the maxilla in three dimensions as revealed radiographically by the implant method. Br J Orthod. 1977 Apr;4(2):53-64.
Björk A, Skieller V. Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. A synthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years. Eur J Orthod. 1983 Feb;5(1):1-46.
Carlson DS. Theories of craniofacial growth in the postgenomic era. Semin Orthod. 2005;11:172–183.
Leslie LR, Southard TE, Southard KA, et al. Prediction of mandibular growth rotation: assessment of the Skieller, Björk, and Linde-Hansen method. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998;114(6):659-667
Springate S. Natural reference structures in the human maxilla: a systematic search in children with tantalum implants. J Orthod. 2015 Mar;42(1):14-21.
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Skieller V, Björk A, Linde-Hansen T. Prediction of mandibular growth rotation evaluated from a longitudinal implant sample. Am J Orthod. 1984 Nov;86(5):359-70.
Solow B. The dentoalveolar compensatory mechanism: background and clinical implications. Br J Orthod. 1980 Jul;7(3):145-61.
Solow B, Houston WJ. Mandibular rotations: concepts and terminology. Eur J Orthod. 1988 Aug;10(3):177-9.
Vig KW. Nasal obstruction and facial growth: the strength of evidence for clinical assumptions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998 Jun;113(6):603-11.
Woodside DG, Linder-Aronson S, Lundstrom A, McWilliam J. Mandibular and maxillary growth after changed mode of breathing. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1991 Jul;100(1):1-18.
Etiology of malocclusion
Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Cobourne MT. The aetiology of malocclusion: A contemporary view. Orth Update. 2008;1:16-21.
Ingervall B, Thilander B. Relation between facial morphology and activity of the masticatory muscles. J Oral Rehabil. 1974 Apr;1(2):131-47.
Mossey PA. The heritability of malocclusion: part 2. The influence of genetics in malocclusion. Br J Orthod. 1999 Sep;26(3):195-203.
Proffit WR. Equilibrium theory revisited: factors influencing position of the teeth. Angle Orthod. 1978 Jul;48(3):175-86.
Development of the occlusion + Functional occlusion
Ades AG, Joondeph DR, Little RM, Chapko MK. A long-term study of the relationship of third molars to changes in the mandibular dental arch. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990 Apr;97(4):323-35
Andrews LF. The six keys to normal occlusion. Am J Orthod. 1972 Sep;62(3):296-309.
Clark JR, Evans RD. Functional occlusion: I. A review. J Orthod. 2001 Mar;28(1):76-81.
Suri L, Gagari E, Vastardis H. Delayed tooth eruption: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. A literature review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Oct;126(4):432-45.
Class I malocclusion
Kirchner J, Williams S. A comparison of five different methods for describing sagittal jaw relationship. Br J Orthod. 1993 Feb;20(1):13-7. 51.
Machado V, Botelho J, Mascarenhas P, Mendes JJ, Delgado A. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Bolton's ratios: Normal occlusion and malocclusion. J Orthod. 2020 Mar;47(1):7-29
Class II/1 malocclusion and functional appliances
Baccetti T, Franchi L, Toth LR, McNamara JA Jr. Treatment timing for Twin-block therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000 Aug;118(2):159-70.
Batista KB, Thiruvenkatachari B, Harrison JE, O'Brien KD. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 13;3(3):CD003452.
Bishara SE. Class II Malocclusions: Diagnostic and Clinical Considerations With and Without Treatment. Semin Orthod. 2006 March;12(1):11-24.
Burden DJ, McGuinness N, Stevenson M, McNamara T. Predictors of outcome among patients with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with fixed appliances in the permanent dentition. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1999 Oct;116(4):452-9.
Dolce C, McGorray SP, Brazeau L, King GJ, Wheeler TT. Timing of Class II treatment: skeletal changes comparing 1-phase and 2-phase treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007 Oct;132(4):481-9.
Harrison JE, O'Brien KD, Worthington HV. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD003452.
Jambi S, Thiruvenkatachari B, O'Brien KD, Walsh T. Orthodontic treatment for distalising upper first molars in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 23;2013(10):CD008375.
Keeling SD, Wheeler TT, King GJ, Garvan CW, Cohen DA, Cabassa S, McGorray SP, Taylor MG. Anteroposterior skeletal and dental changes after early Class II treatment with bionators and headgear. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998;113:40–50 41.
Linjawi AI, Abbassy MA. Dentoskeletal effects of the forsus™ fatigue resistance device in the treatment of class II malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthod Sci. 2018; 7:5. Published 2018 Feb 15
McSherry PF, Bradley H. Class II correction-reducing patient compliance: a review of the available techniques. J Orthod. 2000 Sep;27(3):219-25.
Mihalik CA, Proffit WR, Phillips C. Long-term follow-up of Class II adults treated with orthodontic camouflage: a comparison with orthognathic surgery outcomes. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003 Mar;123(3):266-78.
Nucera R, Militi A, Lo Giudice A, et al. Skeletal and Dental Effectiveness of Treatment of Class II Malocclusion With Headgear: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2018;18(1):41-58.
O'Brien K, Wright J, Conboy F, Sanjie Y, Mandall N, Chadwick S, Connolly I, Cook P, Birnie D, Hammond M, Harradine N, Lewis D, McDade C, Mitchell L, Murray A, O'Neill J, Read M, Robinson S, Roberts-Harry D, Sandler J, Shaw I. Effectiveness of early orthodontic treatment with the Twin-block appliance: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Part 1: Dental and skeletal effects. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003a Sep;124(3):234-43; quiz 339
O'Brien K, Wright J, Conboy F, Appelbe P, Davies L, Connolly I, Mitchell L, Littlewood S, Mandall N, Lewis D, Sandler J, Hammond M, Chadwick S, O'Neill J, McDade C, Oskouei M, Thiruvenkatachari B, Read M, Robinson S, Birnie D, Murray A, Shaw I, Harradine N, Worthington H. Early treatment for Class II Division 1 malocclusion with the Twin-block appliance: a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009 May;135(5):573-9
Pacha MM, Fleming PS, Johal A. Complications, impacts, and success rates of different approaches to treatment of Class II malocclusion in adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2020 Oct;158(4):477-494.e7
Naini FB, Gill DS, Payne E, Keel B. Medium Opening Activator: design applications for the management of Class II deep overbite malocclusion. World J Orthod. 2007 Winter;8(4):e1-9.
Roberts-Harry D, Sandler J, Shaw I, Berk NW. Effectiveness of early orthodontic treatment with the Twin-block appliance: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Part 2: Psychosocial effects. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003 Nov;124(5):488-94; discussion 494-5.
Schaefer AT, McNamara JA Jr, Franchi L, Baccetti T. A cephalometric comparison of treatment with the Twin-block and stainless steel crown Herbst appliances followed by fixed appliance therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Jul;126(1):7-.
Schatz JP, Ostini E, Hakeberg M, Kiliaridis S. Large overjet as a risk factor of traumatic dental injuries: a prospective longitudinal study. Prog Orthod. 2020 Nov 9;21(1):41.
Siara-Olds NJ, Pangrazio-Kulbersh V, Berger J, Bayirli B. Long-term dentoskeletal changes with the Bionator, Herbst, Twin Block, and MARA functional appliances. Angle Orthod. 2010 Jan;80(1):18-29.
Thiruvenkatachari B, Harrison JE, Worthington HV, O'Brien KD. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 13;(11):CD003452.
Tulloch JF, Proffit WR, Phillips C. Outcomes in a 2-phase randomized clinical trial of early Class II treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004 Jun;125(6):657-67.
Voudouris JC, Woodside DG, Altuna G, Kuftinec MM, Angelopoulos G, Bourque PJ. Condyle-fossa modifications and muscle interactions during herbst treatment, part 1. New technological methods. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003 Jun;123(6):604-13.
Witwit S. Early Treatment of Severe Class II Division 1 Malocclusions. Ortho Update 2018;11:141–143
Class II/2 malocclusion
Al-Khateeb EA, Al-Khateeb SN. Anteroposterior and vertical components of class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusion. Angle Orthod. 2009 Sep;79(5):859-66.
Basdra EK, Kiokpasoglou M, Stellzig A. The Class II Division 2 craniofacial type is associated with numerous congenital tooth anomalies. Eur J Orthod. 2000 Oct;22(5):529-35.
Dyer FM, McKeown HF, Sandler PJ. The modified twin block appliance in the treatment of Class II division 2 malocclusions. J Orthod. 2001 Dec;28(4):271-80.
Goldstein BJ, Veitz-Keenan A. Extraction or non-extraction treatment for Class II division 2 malocclusion? Evid Based Dent. 2018 Oct;19(3):88-89.
Lapatki BG et al., 2002, The importance of the level of the lip line and resting lip pressure in Class II, division 2 malocclusion, J Dent Res, 81 ;323-328.
Leighton BC, Adams CP. Incisor inclination in class 2 division 2 malocclusions. Eur J Orthod. 1986;8( 2):98–105
McIntyre GT, Millett DT (2003) Crown-root shape of permanent maxillary incisors. Angle Orthod 73:710–715.
Millett DT, Cunningham SJ, O'Brien KD, Benson P, Williams A, de Oliveira CM. Orthodontic treatment for deep bite and retroclined upper front teeth in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD005972
Millett DT, Cunningham SJ, O'Brien KD, Benson PE, de Oliveira CM. Treatment and stability of class II division 2 malocclusion in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012 Aug;142(2):159-169.e9.
Millett DT, Cunningham SJ, O'Brien KD, Benson PE, de Oliveira CM. Orthodontic treatment for deep bite and retroclined upper front teeth in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Feb 1;2(2):CD005972
Mills JR. The problem of overbite in Class II, division 2 malocclusion. Br J Orthod. 1973 Aug;1(1):34-48
Mills JR. The stability of the lower labial segment. A cephalometric survey. Dent Pract Dent Rec. 1968 Apr;18(8):293-306.
Peck S, Peck L, Kataja M. Class II Division 2 malocclusion: a heritable pattern of small teeth in well-developed jaws. Angle Orthod. 1998 Feb;68(1):9-20
Selwyn-Barnett BJ. Rationale of treatment for Class II division 2 malocclusion. Br J Orthod. 1991 Aug;18(3):173-81.
Selwyn-Barnett BJ. Class II/Division 2 malocclusion: a method of planning and treatment. Br J Orthod. 1996 Feb;23(1):29-36.
Class III malocclusion
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Mandall N, DiBiase A, Littlewood S, Nute S, Stivaros N, McDowall R, Shargill I, Worthington H, Cousley R, Dyer F, Mattick R, Doherty B. Is early Class III protraction facemask treatment effective? A multicentre, randomized, controlled trial: 15-month follow-up. J Orthod. 2010 Sep;37(3):149-61.
Mandall AN, Cousley R, DiBiase A, Dyer F, Littlewood S, Mattick R, Nute S, Doherty B, Stivaros N, McDowall R, Shargill I, Ahmad A, Walsh T, Worthington H. Is early Class III protraction facemask treatment effective? A multicentre, randomized, controlled trial: 3-year follow-up. J Orthod. 2012 Sep;39(3):176-85.
Mandall N, Cousley R, DiBiase A, Dyer F, Littlewood S, Mattick R, Nute SJ, Doherty B, Stivaros N, McDowall R, Shargill I, Worthington HV. Early class III protraction facemask treatment reduces the need for orthognathic surgery: a multi-centre, two-arm parallel randomized, controlled trial. J Orthod. 2016 Sep;43(3):164-75.
Ngan P, Yiu C. Evaluation of treatment and posttreatment changes of protraction facemask treatment using the PAR index. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000 Oct;118(4):414-20.
Toffol LD, Pavoni C, Baccetti T, Franchi L, Cozza P. Orthopedic treatment outcomes in Class III malocclusion. A systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2008 May;78(3):561-73.
Turley PK. Managing the developing Class III malocclusion with palatal expansion and facemask therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002 Oct;122(4):349-52.
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Bills DA, Handelman CS, BeGole EA. Bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion: traits and orthodontic correction. Angle Orthod. 2005 May;75(3):333-9.
Keating PJ. Bimaxillary protrusion in the Caucasian: a cephalometric study of the morphological features. Br J Orthod. 1985 Oct;12(4):193-201.
Keating PJ. The treatment of bimaxillary protrusion. A cephalometric consideration of changes in the inter-incisal angle and soft tissue profile. Br J Orthod. 1986 Oct;13(4):209-20. 35.
Leonardi R, Annunziata A, Licciardello V, Barbato E. Soft tissue changes following the extraction of premolars in nongrowing patients with bimaxillary protrusion. A systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2010 Jan;80(1):211-6.
Anterior open bite
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Cousley RR. Molar intrusion in the management of anterior open bite and 'high angle' Class II malocclusions. J Orthod. 2014 Sep;41 Suppl 1:S39-46.
Greenlee GM, Huang GJ, Chen SS, Chen J, Koepsell T, Hujoel P. Stability of treatment for anterior open-bite malocclusion: a meta-analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Feb;139(2):154-69.
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Kim YH, Han UK, Lim DD, Serraon ML. Stability of anterior openbite correction with multiloop edgewise archwire therapy: A cephalometric follow-up study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000 Jul;118(1):43-54
High angle cases
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Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Aug;140(2):202-9.
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Senışık NE, Türkkahraman H. Treatment effects of intrusion arches and mini-implant systems in deep bite patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012 Jun;141(6):723-33.
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Bishara SE, Burkey PS, Kharouf JG. Dental and facial asymmetries: a review. Angle Orthod. 1994;64(2):89-98.
van Steenbergen E, Nanda R. Biomechanics of orthodontic correction of dental asymmetries. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1995 Jun;107(6):618-24.
Cleft lip an palate
Ali R, Nixon PJ, Chan MFW-Y. Restorative Management of the Cleft Patient: CLP Series
Part 10. Ortho Update 2014; 7: 42–47
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Impacted maxillary canine
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Interceptive orthodontic treatment
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Treatment of crossbites
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Extraction versus non-extraction
Bowman SJ, Johnston LE Jr. The esthetic impact of extraction and nonextraction treatments on Caucasian patients. Angle Orthod. 2000 Feb;70(1):3-10.
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Fixed appliance therapy
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Other orthodontic appliances
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Temporary anchorage devices
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Retention and stability
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White spot lesions
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Iatrogenic effects of orthodontic treatment
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Pain in orthodontics
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Effect of systemic diseases and management of medically compromised patients
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Orthodontic management of traumatized teeth
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Biomechanics and orthodontic tooth movement
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Oral health-related quality of life orthodontic patients
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Smile and Aesthetics
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Orthodontic tooth movement and acceleration of tooth movement
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The following are the references including books and articles that any orthodontic candidate should read during her/his orthodontic 3 years of training, in addition to any extra readings provided by the institution.
List of books
Contemporary Orthodontics. Proffit W, Fields H, Larson B, Sarver D. 6th Edition. 2018 Mosby, USA
Excellence in Orthodontics 2016. Berny D, Nigel Harradine.
Postgraduate Notes in Orthodontics. 8th Edition 2018.
Orthodontic Management of the Dentition with the Preadjusted Appliance (1997). John C. Bennett and Richard P. McLaughlin. Publisher: Isis Medical Media, Oxford, UK
The Orthodontic Patient: Treatment and Biomechanics. Ireland, A.J., McDonald, F., 2001. Oxford UniversityPress, Oxford.
Systemized Orthodontic Treatment Mechanics. McLaughlin, R.P., Bennett, J.C., Trevisi, H.J., 2001. Mosby,St Louis.
Fixed Orthodontic Appliances. Williams, J.K., Cook, P.A., Isaacson, K.G., et al., 1995. Wright, Oxford.